Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

One Cyclotron Rd
Mail Stop 56A-0120
Berkeley,  CA  94720-8099

United States
http://ipo.lbl.gov/
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Innovation. Partnership. Opportunity.

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) delivers science solutions to the world – solutions derived from hundreds of patented and patent-pending inventions and scores of peer-reviewed manuscripts published each year. Berkeley Lab is the birthplace of quantum dots for biomedical assays and energy-efficient, true-color displays; a photodiode enabling smaller gamma cameras; the CalCharge industry consortium enabling advanced battery technology; startups such as Heliotrope and Seeo; and hundreds of new technologies each year.

The Innovation and Partnerships Office (IPO) connects small and large businesses, startups, and entrepreneurs with lab innovations, experts such as those at the Center for X-Ray Optics, and facilities including the Advanced Light Source (synchrotron), Molecular Foundry (nanomanufacturing), and National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center / NERSC & Energy Sciences Network (high-performance computing).

Berkeley Lab is a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science national lab, managed by the University of California, and employs over 3,000 scientists, engineers and support staff. 


 Press Releases

  • A Different Type of 2D Semiconductor

    Berkeley Lab Researchers Produce First Ultrathin Sheets of Perovskite Hybrids

    Ultrathin sheets of a new 2D hybrid perovskite are square-shaped and relatively large in area, properties that should facilitate their integration into future electronic devices.

    Ultrathin sheets of a new 2D hybrid perovskite are square-shaped and relatively large in area, properties that should facilitate their integration into future electronic devices.

    To the growing list of two-dimensional semiconductors, such as graphene, boron nitride, and molybdenum disulfide, whose unique electronic properties make them potential successors to silicon in future devices, you can now add hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites. However, unlike the other contenders, which are covalent semiconductors, these 2D hybrid perovskites are ionic materials, which gives them special properties of their own.

    Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have successfully grown atomically thin 2D sheets of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites from solution. The ultrathin sheets are of high quality, large in area, and square-shaped. They also exhibited efficient photoluminescence, color-tunability, and a unique structural relaxation not found in covalent semiconductor sheets.

    “We believe this is the first example of 2D atomically thin nanostructures made from ionic materials,” says Peidong Yang, a chemist with Berkeley Lab’s Materials Sciences Division and world authority on nanostructures, who first came up with the idea for this research some 20 years ago. “The results of our study open up opportunities for fundamental research on the synthesis and characterization of atomically thin 2D hybrid perovskites and introduces a new family of 2D solution-processed semiconductors for nanoscale optoelectronic devices, such as field effect transistors and photodetectors.”

    (From left) Peidong Yang, Letian Dou, Andrew Wong and Yi Yu successfully followed up on research first proposed by Yang in 1994.

    (From left) Peidong Yang, Letian Dou, Andrew Wong and Yi Yu followed up on research first proposed by Yang in 1994 with “thumbs-up” success. (Photo by Kelly Owen)

    Yang, who also holds appointments with the University of California (UC) Berkeley and is a co-director of the Kavli Energy NanoScience Institute (Kavli-ENSI), is the corresponding author of a paper describing this research in the journal Science. The paper is titled “Atomically thin two-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites.” The lead authors are Letian Dou, Andrew Wong and Yi Yu, all members of Yang’s research group. Other authors are Minliang Lai, Nikolay Kornienko, Samuel Eaton, Anthony Fu, Connor Bischak, Jie Ma, Tina Ding, Naomi Ginsberg, Lin-Wang Wang and Paul Alivisatos.

    Traditional perovskites are typically metal-oxide materials that display a wide range of fascinating electromagnetic properties, including ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity, superconductivity and colossal magnetoresistance. In the past couple of years, organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have been solution-processed into thin films or bulk crystals for photovoltaic devices that have reached a 20-percent power conversion efficiency. Separating these hybrid materials into individual, free-standing 2D sheets through such techniques as spin-coating, chemical vapor deposition, and mechanical exfoliation has met with limited success.

    In 1994, while a PhD student at Harvard University, Yang proposed a method for preparing 2D hybrid perovskite nanostructures and tuning their electronic properties but never acted upon it. This past year, while preparing to move his office, he came upon the proposal and passed it on to co-lead author Dou, a post-doctoral student in his research group. Dou, working mainly with the other lead authors Wong and Yu, used Yang’s proposal to synthesize free-standing 2D sheets of CH3NH3PbI3, a hybrid perovskite made from a blend of lead, bromine, nitrogen, carbon and hydrogen atoms.

    Structural illustration of a single layer of a 2D hybrid perovskite (C4H9NH3)2PbBr4), an ionic material with different properties than 2D covalent semiconductors.

    Structural illustration of a single layer of a 2D hybrid perovskite (C4H9NH3)2PbBr4), an ionic material with different properties than 2D covalent semiconductors.

    “Unlike exfoliation and chemical vapor deposition methods, which normally produce relatively thick perovskite plates, we were able to grow uniform square-shaped 2D crystals on a flat substrate with high yield and excellent reproducibility,” says Dou. “We characterized the structure and composition of individual 2D crystals using a variety of techniques and found they have a slightly shifted band-edge emission that could be attributed to structural relaxation. A preliminary photoluminescence study indicates a band-edge emission at 453 nanometers, which is red-shifted slightly as compared to bulk crystals. This suggests that color-tuning could be achieved in these 2D hybrid perovskites by changing sheet thickness as well as composition via the synthesis of related materials.”

    The well-defined geometry of these square-shaped 2D crystals is the mark of high quality crystallinity, and their large size should facilitate their integration into future devices.

    “With our technique, vertical and lateral heterostructures can also be achieved,” Yang says. “This opens up new possibilities for the design of materials/devices on an atomic/molecular scale with distinctive new properties.”

    This research was supported by DOE’s Office of Science. The characterization work was carried out at the Molecular Foundry’s National Center for Electron Microscopy, and at beamline 7.3.3 of the Advanced Light Source. Both the Molecular Foundry and the Advanced Light Source are DOE Office of Science User Facilities hosted at Berkeley Lab.

    Additional Information

    For more about the research of Peidong Yang go here

    #  #  #

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory addresses the world’s most urgent scientific challenges by advancing sustainable energy, protecting human health, creating new materials, and revealing the origin and fate of the universe. Founded in 1931, Berkeley Lab’s scientific expertise has been recognized with 13 Nobel prizes. The University of California manages Berkeley Lab for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science. For more, visit www.lbl.gov.

    DOE’s Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, please visit the Office of Science website at science.energy.gov/.

     

    Updated: 

  • Fundamental Chemistry Findings Could Help Extend Moore’s Law

    A Berkeley Lab-Intel collaboration outlines the chemistry of photoresist, enabling smaller features for future generations of microprocessors.

    Over the years, computer chips have gotten smaller thanks to advances in materials science and manufacturing technologies. This march of progress, the doubling of transistors on a microprocessor roughly every two years, is called Moore’s Law. But there’s one component of the chip-making process in need of an overhaul if Moore’s law is to continue: the chemical mixture called photoresist. Similar to film used in photography, photoresist, also just called resist, is used to lay down the patterns of ever-shrinking lines and features on a chip.

    Paul Ashby and Deirdre Olynick of Berkeley Lab at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) Extreme Ultraviolet 12.0.1 Beamline.

    Paul Ashby and Deirdre Olynick of Berkeley Lab at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) Extreme Ultraviolet 12.0.1 Beamline. Credit: Roy Kaltschmidt, Berkeley Lab

    Now, in a bid to continue decreasing transistor size while increasing computation and energy efficiency, chip-maker Intel has partnered with researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (Berkeley Lab) to design an entirely new kind of resist. And importantly, they have done so by characterizing the chemistry of photoresist, crucial to further improve performance in a systematic way. The researchers believe their results could be easily incorporated by companies that make resist, and find their way into manufacturing lines as early as 2017.

    The new resist effectively combines the material properties of two pre-existing kinds of resist, achieving the characteristics needed to make smaller features for microprocessors, which include better light sensitivity and mechanical stability, says Paul Ashby, staff scientist at Berkeley Lab’s Molecular Foundry, a DOE Office of Science user facility. “We discovered that mixing chemical groups, including cross linkers and a particular type of ester, could improve the resist’s performance.” The work is published this week in the journal Nanotechnology.

    Finding a new kind of photoresist is “one of the largest challenges facing the semiconductor industry in the materials space,” says Patrick Naulleau, director of the Center for X-ray Optics (CXRO) at Berkeley Lab. Moreover, there’s been very little understanding of the fundamental science of how resist actually works at the chemical level, says Deirdre Olynick, staff scientist at the Molecular Foundry. “Resist is a very complex mixture of materials and it took so long to develop the technology that making huge leaps away from what’s already known has been seen as too risky,” she says. But now the lack of fundamental understanding could potentially put Moore’s Law in jeopardy, she adds.

    To understand why resist is so important, consider a simplified explanation of how your microprocessors are made. A silicon wafer, about a foot in diameter, is cleaned and coated with a layer of photoresist. Next ultraviolet light is used to project an image of the desired circuit pattern including components such as wires and transistors on the wafer, chemically altering the resist.

    Depending on the type of resist, light either makes it more or less soluble, so when the wafer is immersed in a solvent, the exposed or unexposed areas wash away. The resist protects the material that makes up transistors and wires from being etched away and can allow the material to be selectively deposited. This process of exposure, rinse and etch or deposition is repeated many times until all the components of a chip have been created.

    The problem with today’s resist, however, is that it was originally developed for light sources that emit so-called deep ultraviolet light with wavelengths of 248 and 193 nanometers. But to gain finer features on chips, the industry intends to switch to a new light source with a shorter wavelength of just 13.5 nanometers. Called extreme ultraviolet (EUV), this light source has already found its way into manufacturing pilot lines. Unfortunately, today’s photoresist isn’t yet ready for high volume manufacturing.

    “The semiconductor industry wants to go to smaller and smaller features,” explains Ashby. While extreme ultraviolet light is a promising technology, he adds, “you also need the resist materials that can pattern to the resolution that extreme ultraviolet can promise.” So teams led by Ashby and Olynick, which include Berkeley Lab postdoctoral researcher Prashant Kulshreshtha, investigated two types of resist. One is called crosslinking, composed of molecules that form bonds when exposed to ultraviolet light. This kind of resist has good mechanical stability and doesn’t distort during development—that is, tall, thin lines made with it don’t collapse. But if this is achieved with excessive crosslinking, it requires long, expensive exposures. The second kind of resist is highly sensitive, yet doesn’t have the mechanical stability.

    When low concentrations of crosslinker is added to resist (left), it gains mechanical stability and doesn't require expensive exposures as with high crosslinker concentrations (right). Credit:

    When a low concentrations of crosslinker is added to resist (left), it is able to pattern smaller features and doesn’t require longer, expensive exposures as with a high concentrations of crosslinker (right). Credit: Prashant Kulshreshtha, Berkeley Lab

    When the researchers combined these two types of resist in various concentrations, they found they were able to retain the best properties of both. The materials were tested using the unique EUV patterning capabilities at the CXRO. Using the Nanofabrication and Imaging and Manipulation facilities at the Molecular Foundry to analyze the patterns, the researchers saw improvements in the smoothness of lines created by the photoresist, even as they shrunk the width. Through chemical analysis, they were also able to see how various concentrations of additives affected the cross-linking mechanism and resulting stability and sensitivity.

    The researchers say future work includes further optimizing the resist’s chemical formula for the extremely small components required for tomorrow’s microprocessors. The semiconductor industry is currently locking down its manufacturing processes for chips at the so-called 10-nanometer node. If all goes well, these resist materials could play an important role in the process and help Moore’s Law persist. This research was funded by the Intel Corporation, JSR Micro, and the DOE Office of Science (Basic Energy Sciences).

    ###

      Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory addresses the world’s most urgent scientific challenges by advancing sustainable energy, protecting human health, creating new materials, and revealing the origin and fate of the universe. Founded in 1931, Berkeley Lab’s scientific expertise has been recognized with 13 Nobel prizes. The University of California manages Berkeley Lab for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science. For more, visit www.lbl.gov.

    For over a decade Berkeley Lab’s Center for X-Ray Optics has conducted photolithography-related research, including world-leading programs in optics, masks, and materials — most conducted on three CXRO beamlines at the Advanced Light Source. For more information on CXRO, visit www.cxro.lbl.gov. For more information about the Advanced light source, visit www.als.lbl.gov.

    The Molecular Foundry is one of five DOE Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs), national user facilities for interdisciplinary research at the nanoscale, supported by the DOE Office of Science.  Together the NSRCs comprise a suite of complementary facilities that provide researchers with state-of-the-art capabilities to fabricate, process, characterize and model nanoscale materials, and constitute the largest infrastructure investment of the National Nanotechnology Initiative. The NSRCs are located at DOE’s Argonne, Brookhaven, Lawrence Berkeley, Oak Ridge and Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories.  For more information about the DOE NSRCs, please visit http://science.energy.gov. For more information about the Molecular Foundry, visit http://foundry.lbl.gov/.

     

    Updated: 

  • Simplifying Solar Cells with a New Mix of Materials

    Berkeley Lab-led Research Team Creates a High-efficiency Device in 7 Steps

    An international research team has simplified the steps to create highly efficient silicon solar cells by applying a new mix of materials to a standard design. Arrays of solar cells are used in solar panels to convert sunlight to electricity.

    The special blend of materials—which could also prove useful in semiconductor components—eliminates the need for a process known as doping that steers the device’s properties by introducing foreign atoms to its electrical contacts. This doping process adds complexity to the device and can degrade its performance.

    “The solar cell industry is driven by the need to reduce costs and increase performance,” said James Bullock, the lead author of the study, published this week in Nature Energy. Bullock participated in the study as a visiting researcher at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley.

    A photo of the DASH (dopant free asymmetric heterocontact) solar cell developed through an international collaboration. (Berkeley Lab)

    A photo of the DASH (dopant free asymmetric heterocontact) solar cell developed through an international collaboration. (Photo credit: James Bullock/Berkeley Lab, UC Berkeley, ANU)

    “If you look at the architecture of the solar cell we made, it is very simple,” said Bullock, of Australian National University (ANU). “That simplicity can translate to reduced cost.”

    Other scientists from Berkeley Lab, UC Berkeley, ANU and The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology of Lausanne (EPFL) also participated in the study.

    Bullock added, “Conventional silicon solar cells use a process called impurity doping, which does bring about a number of limitations that are making further progress increasingly difficult.”

    Most of today’s solar cells use crystalline silicon wafers. The wafer itself, and sometimes the layers deposited on the wafer, are doped with atoms that either have electrons to spare when they bond with silicon atoms, or alternatively generate electron deficiencies, or “holes.” In both cases, this doping enhances electrical conductivity.

    In these devices, two types of dopant atoms are required at the solar cell’s electrical contacts to regulate how the electrons and holes travel in a solar cell so that sunlight is efficiently converted to electrical current that flows out of the cell.

    Crystalline silicon-based solar cells with doped contacts can exceed 20 percent efficiency—meaning more than 20 percent of the sun’s energy is converted to electricity. A dopant-free silicon cell had not previously exceeded 14 percent efficiency.

    The new study, though, demonstrated a dopant-free silicon cell, referred to as a DASH cell (dopant free asymmetric heterocontact), with an average efficiency above 19 percent. This increased efficiency is a product of the new materials and a simple coating process for layers on the top and bottom of the device. Researchers showed it’s possible to create their solar cell in just seven steps.

    In this study, the research team used a crystalline silicon core (or wafer) and applied layers of dopant-free type of silicon called amorphous silicon.

    Then, they applied ultrathin coatings of a material called molybdenum oxide, also known as moly oxide, at the sun-facing side of the solar cell, and lithium fluoride at the bottom surface. The two layers, having thicknesses of tens of nanometers, act as dopant-free contacts for holes and electrons, respectively.

    “Moly oxide and lithium fluoride have properties that make them ideal for dopant-free electrical contacts,” said Ali Javey, program leader of Electronic Materials at Berkeley Lab and a professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences at UC Berkeley.

    Both materials are transparent, and they have complementary electronic structures that are well-suited for solar cells.

    In this illustration, the top images show a cross-section of a solar cell design that uses a combination of moly oxide and lithium fluoride. These materials allow the device to achieve high efficiency in converting sunlight to energy without the need for a process known as doping. The bottom images shows the dimensions of the DASH solar cell components. (Image credit: Nature Energy 10.1038/nenergy.2015.31)

    In this illustration, the top images show a cross-section of a solar cell design that uses a combination of moly oxide and lithium fluoride. These materials allow the device to achieve high efficiency in converting sunlight to energy without the need for a process known as doping. The bottom images shows the dimensions of the DASH solar cell components. (Image credit: Nature Energy 10.1038/nenergy.2015.31)

    “They were previously explored for other types of devices, but they were not carefully explored by the crystalline silicon solar cell community,” said Javey, the lead senior author of the study.

    Javey noted that his group had discovered the utility of moly oxide as an efficient hole contact for crystalline silicon solar cells a couple of years ago. “It has a lot of defects, and these defects are critical and important for the arising properties. These are good defects,” he said.

    Stefaan de Wolf, another author who is team leader for crystalline silicon research at EPFL in Neuchâtel, Switzerland, said, “We have adapted the technology in our solar cell manufacturing platform at EPFL and found out that these moly oxide layers work extremely well when optimized and used in combination with thin amorphous layer of silicon on crystalline wafers. They allow amazing variations of our standard approach.”

    In the study, the team identified lithium fluoride as a good candidate for electron contacts to crystalline silicon coated with a thin amorphous layer. That layer complements the moly oxide layer for hole contacts.

    The team used a room-temperature technique called thermal evaporation to deposit the layers of lithium fluoride and moly oxide for the new solar cell. There are many other materials that the research teams hopes to test to see if they can improve the cell’s efficiency.

    Javey said there is also promise for adapting the material mix used in the solar cell study to improve the performance of semiconductor transistors. “There’s a critical need to reduce the contact resistance in transistors so we’re trying to see if this can help.”

    Some off the work in this study was performed at The Molecular Foundry, a DOE Office of Science User Facility at Berkeley Lab.

    This work was supported by the DOE Office of Science, Bay Area Photovoltaics Consortium (BAPVC); the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, a DOE Energy Innovation Hub; Office fédéral de l’énergie (OFEN); the Australian Renewable Energy Agency (ARENA) and the CSEM PV-center.

    More information about Ali Javey’s research is available here: http://nano.eecs.berkeley.edu/.

    # # #

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory addresses the world’s most urgent scientific challenges by advancing sustainable energy, protecting human health, creating new materials, and revealing the origin and fate of the universe. Founded in 1931, Berkeley Lab’s scientific expertise has been recognized with 13 Nobel prizes. The University of California manages Berkeley Lab for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science.  For more, visit www.lbl.gov.

    The DOE Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, please visit science.energy.gov.

    Updated: 


 Products

  • Berkeley Lab Molecular Foundry
    The Molecular Foundry, http://foundry.lbl.gov/, is a Department of Energy-funded nanoscience research facility providing users from around the world access to cutting-edge expertise and instrumentation in a collaborative, multidisciplinary environment....

  • The Molecular Foundry features world-class scientists with expertise across a broad range of disciplines and state-of-the-art, often one-of-a-kind, instrumentation. Staff spend at least half their time working with outside users, devoting the remainder of their time to internal research activities, which can be augmented with postdoctoral fellows hired using internal or external grant support. Internal research programs advance the frontiers of nanoscale science and electron microscopy by developing new capabilities that are made available to users. In this novel feedback model, users are strongly engaged to advance Foundry research: many new Foundry capabilities arise out of synergistic projects with users.

    Organized into seven interdependent research facilities that support the four crosscutting scientific themes that are validated by a thorough strategic planning process, the Foundry provides access to state-of-the-art instrumentation, unique scientific expertise, and specialized techniques to help users address myriad challenges in nanoscience and nanotechnology. The seven research facilities are

  • Berkeley Lab Advanced Light Source
    Berkeley Lab’s Advanced Light Source (ALS), http://www-als.lbl.gov/, is an electron accelerator/storage ring that serves as one of the world’s premier sources of X-ray and ultraviolet light for scientific research....

  • Scientists from a wide variety of fields come to the ALS to perform experiements. Listed below are some of the most common research areas covered by ALS beamlines. Below each heading are a few examples of the specific types of topics included in that category. Click on a heading to learn more about that research area at the ALS.

    Energy Science

    Photovoltaics, photosynthesis, biofuels, energy storage, combustion, catalysis, carbon capture/sequestration.

    Bioscience

    General biology, structural biology.

    Materials/Condensed Matter

    Correlated materials, nanomaterials, magnetism, polymers, semiconductors, water, advanced materials.

    Physics

    Atomic, molecular, and optical (AMO) physics; accelerator physics.

    Chemistry

    Surfaces/interfaces, catalysts, chemical dynamics (gas-phase chemistry), crystallography, physical chemistry.

    Geoscience/Environment

    Earth and planetary science, bioremediation, climate change, water chemistry.

     

    Applied Science/Techniques

    Optics, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, metrology, instrumentation, detectors, new synchrotron techniques.

     

    RESEARCH TECHNIQUES

    The experimental techniques in use at the ALS fall into three broad categories: spectroscopy, diffraction, and imaging. In addition, some techniques are capable of capturing changes over time. Click on a heading to learn more about these techniques at the ALS.

    Spectroscopy

    These techniques are used to study the energies of particles that are emitted or absorbed by samples that are exposed to the light-source beam and are commonly used to determine the characteristics of chemical bonding and electron motion.

    Scattering

    These techniques make use of the patterns of light produced when x rays are deflected by the closely spaced lattice of atoms in solids and are commonly used to determine the structures of crystals and large molecules such as proteins.

    Imaging

    These techniques use the light-source beam to obtain pictures with fine spatial resolution of the samples under study and are used in diverse research areas such as cell biology, lithography, infrared microscopy, radiology, and x-ray tomography.

    Time-Resolved

    These techniques exploit the pulsed nature of the light-source beam to take a series of snap-shots that, together, can form a moving picture of the changes in a sample over time.

     
  • Berkeley Lab NERSC
    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is one of the largest facilities in the world devoted to providing computational resources and expertise for accelerating scientific discovery....

  • More than 5,000 scientists use NERSC to perform basic scientific research across a wide range of disciplines, including climate modeling, research into new materials, simulations of the early universe, analysis of data from high energy physics experiments, investigations of protein structure, and a host of other scientific endeavors. NERSC is known as one of the best-run scientific computing facilities in the world. It provides some of the largest computing and storage systems available anywhere, but what distinguishes the center is its success in creating an environment that makes these resources effective for scientific research. NERSC systems are reliable and secure, and provide a state-of-the-art scientific development environment with the tools needed by the diverse community of NERSC users. 

    NERSC's systems include

    • Edison Cray XC30 - NERSC's newest petaflop system
    • Cori - a supercomputer
    • PDSF - a networked distributed computing environment for large scale physics and other applications
    • Genepool - serving the Joint Genome Institute
    • HPSS data archive - a mass storage system

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