h.a.l.m. develops and delivers high-end measuring systems forphotovoltaic technologies. Although h.a.l.m. puts a lot of effort into visual inspection and other advanced analysis, the general task is to measure the electrical characteristic of photovoltaic specimen.
•cetisPV-CT-L1- IV curve-tracer, 3Quadrant active load
•cetisPV-BI- Digital Interface to cell-sorter
•cetisPV-XF2- IEC class AAA Xenon cell-flasher
Features： IV Curve Tracer
The heart of h.a.l.m. systems is the curve tracer cetisPV-CTL1, which measures the IV curves of PV cells or modules. IV curves are measured by connecting the PV specimen to a varying load. h.a.l.m. uses active electronical 3-quadrant loads, which allow measurements in negative voltage and even negative-current zones. This enables dark curves, advanced analysis, and more reliability in measuring Voc and Isc.
Following the h.a.l.m. philosophy of enabling as much flexibility and edit ability as possible, the sweep of the active electronical 3-quadrant load can be configured in numerous ways. Users can control direction, speed, timing, and measuring point distribution in order to get the best results out of their specific cell technology. The h.a.l.m. load even allows hysteresis measurements within one single flash, which allows measuring of high- efficiency cell technologies. Sun Simulation
The class A+A+A+ h.a.l.m. xenon flashers cetisPV-XF2 are outstanding in many ways. Due to the sophisticated power-regulation system, the flasher is able to do freely defined light pulses. This offers highly time-stable flashes with an irradiance variation of less than 0.5% during flashes of up to 200 ms. Above that, the flash can be configured with several intensity steps to measure the IV curves of several irradiances within one flash (e.g. 1000 W/m², 500 W/m² and 200 W/m²). The flash curve may also contain a decreasing ramp to enable the Suns-Voc evaluation.
In the last years, h.a.l.m. has put a lot of effort in improving its spectral performances. The newest filter goes far beyond the IEC class A requirements. The spectral mismatch below 12.5% can be considered as class A+.
Not just in spectral mismatch and temporal stability but also in spatial uniformity the h.a.l.m. sun simulator exceeds class A with a non-uniformity of <1% for module testers.The power segment of the flash-control device is designed to allow long light pulses as well as short recharging times. For cell lines, the newest heavy duty system is able to run 60ms flashes in 1 s cycles. For module systems, repetition rates of 10 s with 60 ms flashes can be achieved.