Inventor and holder of multiple wafer test patents including AirCool® Plus (-65°C to +400°C) and PowerSense® power detection. ERS hot/cold chuck systems provide rapid and precise thermal wafer characterization in full-auto, semi-auto and manual probers for wafers up to 300 mm. AirCool® Plus systems use only cold air as the coolant. No Peltier elements are needed and no liquids ever enter prober or chuck. Air-only chilling insures unmatched MTBF and low cost of ownership. ERS chucks for parametric test have extremely low noise values in fA range and ERS wafer-sort chucks have high rigidity and quick ramp times. ERS stand-alone tools include thermal forcing units (adaptable to specific needs) as well as substrate separation and surface treatment systems for wafer level package applications.